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Cellular Systems

cellular network or mobile network is radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station. In a cellular network, each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed bandwidth within each cell.

When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.
Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions:

An example of a simple non-telephone cellular system is an old taxi drivers' radio system, in which a taxi company has several transmitters based around a city that can communicate directly with each other.

 

In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other regular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is assigned multiple frequencies (f1 - f6) which have corresponding radio basestations. The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interface.


The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a single transmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a different area for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only one transmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably some level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency. This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap between cells which reuse the same frequency.


In the simple case of the taxi company, each radio had a manually operated channel selector knob to tune to different frequencies. As the drivers moved around, they would change from channel to channel. The drivers knew which frequency covered approximately what area. When they did not receive a signal from the transmitter, they would try other channels until they found one that worked. The taxi drivers would only speak one at a time, when invited by the base station operator (this is, in a sense, time division multiple access (TDMA)).

References:
TCP/IP
By
Emmett Dulaney
john white
Sherwood Lawrence
raymondwilliams
Robert Scrimger
kevinwolford
Anthony tilke

Wireless communication
By
Andrea Goldsmith
Stanford University

Images:Google images

 

 

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